CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC: EXERCISE BATTLING THE DEADLY CYTOKINE STORM

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CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC: EXERCISE BATTLING THE DEADLY CYTOKINE STORM


On April 27, in my article entitled Coronavirus Pandemic: Diet and Nutrition – Battling the Deadly Cytokine Storm (musculardevelopment.com) I reported on the anti-inflammatory Mediterranean food regimen and the way it might decrease irritation and tame down the cytokine storm. For a few years, I used to be a member of the American Oil Chemical Society, a corporation led by researchers from around the globe finding out the position of fat and oils in our food regimen. In the ‘80s early, epidemiology discovered that the “Greenland Eskimos who dwell on a conventional marine wealthy food regimen in long-chain omega-Three polyunsaturated fatty acids have a low incidents of heart problems and myocardial infarction (Nature, 1984).” Arachidonic acid is an inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acid and is changed in platelets and cell membranes with the anti-inflammatory omega-Three fatty acids from a excessive fish and fish oil food regimen. The excessive omega-Three fatty acid within the food regimen inhibited a clotting a prostaglandin referred to as thromboxane A2 in blood platelets to allow them to’t combination and kind harmful clots. We additionally realized that top omega-Three fats diets additionally elevated one other prostaglandin in our vascular partitions referred to as prostaglandin I3 (PGI3) that will increase vasodilation of blood vessels and improves blood stream within the physique and to the guts. These had been two mechanisms of motion of the cardiovascular advantages of fish and omega-Three fatty acids within the Greenland Eskimo’s conventional food regimen and guarded them from heart problems.

As you might be conscious from my previous articles, I’m a giant advocate for the Mediterranean food regimen, low in saturated fat and wealthy in fish and omega-Three fatty acids. I really useful to Clint Eastwood to go on the Mediterranean food regimen over 25 years in the past. He would typically name me for recommendation on vitamin and food regimen suggestions. He valued how concerned I used to be again then for staying on high of the most recent scientific analysis. Clint is popping 90 years previous this May and is without doubt one of the most well being acutely aware people by way of vitamin, coaching and health. I as soon as went out to Burbank, CA to satisfy with Clint in his sound studios. He was engaged on the sound and ending up for the launch of his new movie on the time, Tightrope. While I used to be within the sound studio with him, he was pumping iron on the similar time he was modifying the movie. He was amazingly match and wholesome again then and nonetheless in the present day at 90 years of age!

A 3rd mechanism of motion of the omega-Three fatty acids and its inhibitory impact is a sort of hormone-like compounds referred to as leukotrienes. These leukotrienes are produced naturally from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in animal fat within the food regimen. Arachidonic acid can improve irritation and the inflammatory cascade, which may result in the cytokine storm! Inflammation is linked to the next danger of heart problems, most cancers, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Food sources of arachidonic acid embrace poultry reminiscent of duck, turkey and hen, and beef, pork, butter, cream, and egg yolks. Duck and turkey are the richest meals sources of arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is excessive in meat, poultry and eggs due to the feeding of corn (wealthy in linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fats, plentiful in vegetable oils) to cattle, hogs, and hens. Humans, not like animals, don’t convert linoleic acid present in complete grains or vegetable oils into arachidonic acid. Diets wealthy in polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat are wealthy in virgin olive oil and omega-Three fat, that are present in fish within the Mediterranean food regimen. The Mediterranean food regimen lowers the physique of arachidonic acid, probably the most inflammatory fatty acid and precursor that causes the inflammatory cascade and uncontrolled acute and continual irritation.

For a few years, health lovers and athletes have been gobbling up ibuprofen and different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication to stop ache and irritation because of high-intensity exercises. In current years, cox-2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication have been linked to severe cardiovascular accidents. It is now really useful that folks with heart problems, or a excessive danger, not take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication until authorized and really useful by their physicians or cardiologists.

Non-steroidal medication reminiscent of cox-2 inhibitors are an efficient analgesic and inhibit ache and irritation by blocking prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), however in addition they block prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) prostacyclin that’s a very powerful vasodilator shaped within the endothelial of our vascular partitions. This is without doubt one of the mechanisms by way of which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication have adversarial results on the cardiovascular system in inclined individuals.

CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC: EXERCISE BATTLING THE DEADLY CYTOKINE STORM 1

 

EXERCISE, OVERTRAINING AND THE CYTOKINE STORM

Over the years, marathon races have change into a preferred development. Training for marathons and working 26.2 miles has been proven to have a adverse impact on the cardiovascular system. It has been proven to extend interleukin-6, irritation, c-reactive protein in arteries and improve plaque buildup and calcium ranges in our artery partitions. High mileage and distant working may also result in overtraining and elevated cortisol ranges and decrease immune operate. More isn’t at all times higher! Marathon runners are sometimes overtrained and liable to immune suppression and continual sickness and colds. Marathons are bodily very difficult and are extraordinarily aggravating for our our bodies. To assist stop overtraining, we should have correct relaxation, sleep and vitamin for enhanced restoration and efficiency. Also, your doctor can prescribe a blood take a look at to measure your c-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of systemic irritation. Running is clearly good to your well being, weight reduction and cardiovascular system, however overtraining syndrome from extreme working can clearly be unhealthy to your well being and make you extra inclined to the coronavirus. 

WHAT ARE CYTOKINES? THE GOOD, THE BAD & THE UGLY

As I discussed in my final article, individuals contaminated with the COVID-19 virus typically develop a deranged, hyperimmune response within the lungs leading to elevation of interleukin-6, irritation, which can lead to pneumonia, lung failure, respiratory collapse (requiring a potential ventilator), and/or dying.

Interluekin-6 can be launched throughout train and muscle contraction. Circulating ranges of interleukin-6 are affected by period of train and depth. High ranges of IL-6 can improve irritation and low ranges of IL-6 can work as an anti-inflammatory by stimulating AMPK. With train, circulating IL-6 may be elevated for a number of hours to a number of days. IL-6 ranges within the blood usually peak instantly post-exercise and return to baseline ranges by two days. Normally these cytokines reminiscent of IL-6 activate our immune response and sure white blood cells referred to as macrophages that destroy and kill harmful pathogens, micro organism and viruses. These white blood cells are like “killer, phagocytic Pac Men” that launch reactive oxygen species (ROS) free radicals and kill these micro organism and viruses and on the similar time, these ROS free radical species injury regular tissue, together with muscle and may trigger cell dying.

At this time, a number of medication are being investigated to assist battle the cytokine storm in COVID-19 sufferers reminiscent of tocilizumab (Actemra) developed by the biotech firm Genentech and bought by Roche Holding AG. Side results of those anti-inflammatory medication authorized for rheumatoid arthritis embrace higher respiratory infections, hypertension, hepatotoxicity and elevated danger of sure most cancers by downregulating the immune system.

The Mediterranean food regimen, which I discussed earlier in my article, has nice potential to assist naturally tame down the uncontrolled hyperimmune response from overtraining and the cytokine storm. The Mediterranean food regimen has been proven to decrease inflammatory prostaglandins, leukotrienes and interleukin-6 in our tissue and muscle, and decrease irritation. It has additionally the healthiest food regimen primarily based on the most recent scientific analysis.

Unlike extreme long-distance working, it has change into evident within the scientific literature that eccentric resistance weight coaching train doesn’t usually improve interleukin-6 within the blood! Like I stated earlier, train period is the one most necessary issue figuring out post-exercise plasma IL-6. That’s why lengthy hours of cardiovascular coaching reminiscent of coaching for a marathon can increase irregular IL-6 ranges, which may improve the danger of overtraining, immune suppression, lack of lean physique mass and have a adverse impact in your well being. Research has proven that six minutes of rowing on an train ergometer can improve plasma IL-6 by two-fold. A 10-fold improve in plasma IL-6 requires train for 1.9 hours whereas a 100-fold improve of plasma IL-6 requires train lasting six hours – particularly in response to working. Long-distance working has additionally been proven to decrease the anabolic hormone testosterone and elevate interleukin-6, which may decrease insulin-derived-growth-factor (IGF-1) and lift myostatin, a catabolic myokine. High ranges of myostatin can improve muscle loss and inhibit muscle development. Creatine, as a dietary complement, has been proven to decrease myostatin in muscle and improve lean physique mass and efficiency. Post-workout vitamin is essential to assist get well from long-duration and high-intensity exercises and fight excessive ranges of interleukin-6. Adequate carbohydrate and protein within the food regimen are important as a part of a post-workout meal. Carbohydrate and the important amino acid leucine have been proven to decrease interleukin-6 ranges.

A research within the journal SL Nutrition and Metabolism on September 5, 2017 reported that, “outcomes display that free-leucine supplementation, however not inside a combination of BCAA can affect serum cytokine sample to be able to promote a extra anti-inflammatory sample in wholesome people.” Leucine is a potent activator of muscle protein synthesis in muscle. Five grams of pure leucine post-workout may be taken on an empty abdomen together with creatine earlier than a post-workout restoration meal, wealthy in advanced carbohydrates and protein containing all of the important amino acids for protein synthesis restoration and muscle restore and development. Like I stated earlier, marathon working dramatically raises interleukin-6 within the physique and may have a hyperimmune response, ensuing within the cytokine storm, particularly for those who prepare each day of lengthy period.

On March 11, 2020 the well being information web site STAT printed the story and reported in The Wall Street Journal (Thursday, April 30, 2020) a few “A 47-year previous New Jersey physician who caught COVID and declined from a marathon’s runner’s well being to close dying in days. A doctor good friend, and infectious-disease specialist, did attempt hydroxychloroquine with Zithromax … it didn’t assist! After extra back-of-the-envelope evaluation, she tried the tocilizumab, an anti-inflammatory drug authorized for rheumatoid arthritis. His fever of practically 104 receded and his oxygen ranges grew to become regular. Does this show the arthritis drug for COVID-19? Who is aware of? It appears as if it labored on this nook of the battlefield and by the way in which, it saved one other younger physician in Seattle who had COVID.”

 

Sources:

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  2. National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  3. Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security
  4. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)
  5. Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA)
  6. New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)

 

References:

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